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John K. Hillers

Also Known as: Jack Hillers, J. K. Hillers

Born:
Hanover, Germany 1843

Died:
Washington, District of Columbia 1925

Active in:

  • New Mexico
  • Arizona

Biography

Photographer. A German immigrant, Hillers found employment as a boatman on John Wesley Powerll's 1871 survey of the Colorado River. By first assisting and then substituting for the expedition's official photographer, Hillers progressed quickly, showing a natural aptitude for the medium. The next year he was made chief photographer for the survey.

From 1879–1880, Hillers accompanied a Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) survey into New Mexico and Arizona, where he photographed Canyon de Chelly, the Rio Grande pueblos, and Zuni. His portraits of the Indians and their homes and villages tell much about their social structure and lifestyle.

During his long career, Hillers made some twenty thousand negatives for the U.S. Geological Survey and the BAE; many are works of high artistic and technical merit, satisfying both as pictorial views and historical documents.

References
Darrah, William Culp. "Bedman, Fennemore, Hillers, Dellenbaugh, Johnson and Hattan: Photographers and Other Members of the Expedition." Utah Historical Quarterly 16–17 (1948–49): 491–503.

Debooy, H. T. "Pioneer Photographers." New Mexico Magazine 37 (February 1959): 22–23.

Coke. Photography in New Mexico.

Ballinger and Rubinstein. Visitors to Arizona, 1846–1980, pp. 94–95.

Charles Eldredge, Julie Schimmel, and William H. Truettner Art in New Mexico, 1900–1945: Paths to Taos and Santa Fe (Washington, DC: National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1986)

Additional Biographies

In 1879 the Bureau of Ethnology (later changed to the Bureau of American Ethnology) was created under the Department of the Interior. With the Smithsonian Institution appointed as administrator, John Wesley Powell became the first director, and Hillers, who had previously worked for Powell, was hired as staff photographer. In 1871 Hillers signed on as a boatman for the second Powell expedition down the Colorado River. Assisting the expedition photographers Edward O. Beaman and Walter Powell, he subsequently became Powell's expedition photographer in 1872.

Hillers continued the work of the surveys, but his emphasis shifted from georgraphy and geology to archaeology and ethnology. His portraits of the Hopi (Moki) and Navajo, as well as photographs of architecture, domestic life, and rituals, were used by the bureau to record traditional ways of life and supplement material collections. Often he contrasts the details of a site with the more abstract and spacious idea of history. In his photograph of Hopi Mesa (or the First Mesa, as it was named by the Spaniards on their trek north from Mexico in the sixteenth century), domestic details such as the drying of peaches, as well as a chimney funnel made from an old pot, crowd the near foreground. Taken from Hano pueblo, the photograph shows Sichomovi pueblo in the middle distance. At the most distant point is Walpi pueblo, site of the sacred Antelope-Snake Ceremony.

Merry A. Foresta American Photographs: The First Century (Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art with the Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996)