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Machinery (Abstract #2)

1933-1934 Paul Kelpe Born: Minden, Germany 1902 Died: Austin, Texas 1985 oil on canvas 38 1/4 x 26 3/8 in. (97.0 x 67.0 cm.) Smithsonian American Art Museum Transfer from the U.S. Department of Labor 1964.1.27 Not currently on view

Luce Center Quote

"I compose my paintings of form and color, like a musician composes music with rhythm and sound." The artist, 1936, quoted in Manthorne, Paul Kelpe: Abstractions and Constructions, 1925-1940, 1990

Exhibition Label

What kind of industry does the man holding the levers control in Paul Kelpe's painting Machinery. There are no hints; the smokestacks emit no smoke and no product piles up on the factory floor. In fact, Kelpe's mechanism manufactures nothing. He was actually an abstract painter whose concerns were aesthetic. In his paintings for the Public Works of Art Project, he knew that he needed to somehow address "the American Scene." "As they refused to accept 'nonrepresentational' art," he said, "I made a number of pictures with geometric machinery." But Kelpe, unlike the many PWAP artists who factually depicted industrial scenes, studied no real-life factories. He created his own independent visual world, reflecting the kind of technological progress of which Americans were proud. The artist thoughtfully balanced large and small shapes, warm and cool colors, to create a harmonious mechanistic vision. A pattern of diagonal brushstrokes on the painting’s surface catches the light to suggest action. The wheels seem to turn with the soft hum of a well-tuned machine.

1934: A New Deal for Artists exhibition label

Luce Center Label

The shadowed worker in this painting appears to be controlling the structure, suggesting man's essential role in industry and his ability to create massive, powerful machines. During the Depression, many artists celebrated human achievements in this way, to emphasize the importance of the working class and to boost morale. In 1934, Paul Kelpe worked for the Public Works of Art Project. The program did not accept abstract art, so he incorporated realistic elements such as figures, wheels, and buildings into his compositions. These images were still not "representational enough," however, and he soon gave up trying to please his bosses (Manthorne, Paul Kelpe, Abstractions and Constructions, 1925-1940, 1990).



Architecture - industry - factory

Architecture - machine

Figure male - full length

New Deal - Public Works of Art Project - Illinois


paint - oil

fabric - canvas