"The man who is guided by reason is more free in a state, where he lives under a general system of law, than in solitude, where he is independent."--Benedict Spinoza, Ethics, 1677. From the series Great Ideas of Western Man.
1956 Richard Lindner Born: Hamburg, Germany 1901 Died: New York, New York 1978 oil on canvas 26 1/8 x 18 in. (66.4 x 45.8 cm) Smithsonian American Art Museum Gift of Container Corporation of America 1984.124.179 Not currently on view
Allegory - arts and sciences - mathematics
Allegory - arts and sciences - philosophy
Occupation - education - philosopher
Portrait male - Spinoza, Benedict - bust
paint - oil
fabric - canvas