Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of North American Indians
by George Catlin
(First published in London in 1844)
MOUTH OF YELLOW STONE, UPPER MISSOURI.
Since the date of my former Letter, I have been so much engaged in the amusements of
the country, and the use of my brush, that I have scarcely been able to drop you a line until the
Before I let you into the amusements and customs of this delightful country however, (and
which, as yet, are secrets to most of the world), I must hastily travel with you over the tedious
journey of 2000 miles, from St. Louis to this place; over which distance one is obliged to pass,
before he can reach this wild and lovely spot.
The Missouri is, perhaps, different in appearance and character from all other rivers in the
world; there is a terror in its manner which is sensibly felt, the moment we enter its muddy
waters from the Mississippi. From the mouth of the Yellow Stone River, which is the place from whence I am now writing, to its junction with the Mississippi, a distance of 2000 miles, the Missouri, with its boiling, turbid waters, sweeps off, is one unceasing current; and in the whole distance there is scarcely an eddy or resting-place for a canoe. Owing to the continual falling in of its rich alluvial
banks, its water is always turbid and opaque; having, at all seasons of the year, the colour of a cup
of chocolate or coffee, with sugar and cream stirred into it. To give a better definition of its density
and opacity, I have tried a number of simple experiments with it at this place, and at other points
below, at the results of which I was exceedingly surprised. By placing a piece of silver (and
afterwards a piece of shell, which is a much whiter substance) in a tumbler of its water, and looking
through the side of the glass, I ascertained that those substances could not be seen through the
eighth part of an inch; this, however, is in the spring of the year, when the freshet is upon the river,
rendering the water, undoubtedly, much more turbid than it would be at other seasons; though it
is always muddy and yellow, and from its boiling and wild character and uncommon colour, a
stranger would think, even in its lowest state, that there was a freshet upon it.
For the distance of 1000 miles above St. Louis, the shores of this river (and, in many places,
the whole bed of the stream) are filled with snags and raft, formed of trees of the largest size, which
have been undermined by the falling banks and cast into the stream; their roots becoming fastened
in the bottom of the river, with their tops floating on the surface of the water, and pointing down the
stream, forming the most frightful and discouraging prospect for the adventurous voyageur.
Almost every island and sand-bar is covered with huge piles of these floating trees, and
when the river is flooded, its surface is almost literally covered with floating raft and drift wood
which bid positive defiance to keel-boats and steamers, on their way up the river.
With what propriety this "Hell of waters" might be denominated the "River Styx," I will not
undertake to decide; but nothing could be more appropriate or innocent than to call it the River of
The scene is not, however, all so dreary; there is a redeeming beauty in the green and carpeted shores, which hem in this huge and terrible deformity of waters. There is much of the way though, where the mighty forests of stately cotton wood stand, and frown in horrid dark and coolness over the filthy abyss below; into which they are ready to plunge headlong, when the mud and soil in which they were germed and reared have been washed out from underneath them, and with the rolling current are mixed, and on their way to the ocean.
The greater part of the shores of this river, however, are without timber, where the eye is
delightfully relieved by wandering over the beautiful prairies; most of the way gracefully sloping down to the water's edge, carpeted with the deepest green, and, in distance, softening into velvet of the richest hues, entirely beyond the reach of the artist's pencil. Such is the character of the upper part of the river especially; and as one advances towards its source, and through its upper half, it becomes more pleasing to the eye, for snags and raft are no longer to be seen; yet the current holds its stiff and onward turbid character.
It has been, heretofore, very erroneously represented to the world, that the scenery on the river was monotonous, and wanting in picturesque beauty. This intelligence is surely incorrect, and
that because it has been brought perhaps, by men who are not the best judges in the world, of
Nature's beautiful works; and if they were, they always pass them by, in pain or desperate distress,
in toil and trembling fear for the safety of their furs and peltries, or for their lives, which are at the
mercy of the yelling savages who, inhabit this delightful country.
One thousand miles or more of the upper part of the river, was, to my eye, like fairy-land; and during our transit through that part of our voyage, I was most of the time riveted to the deck of
the boat, indulging my eyes in the boundless and tireless pleasure of roaming over the thousand
hills, and bluffs, and dales, and ravines; where the astonished herds of buffaloes, of elks, and
antelopes, and sneaking wolves, and mountain-goats, were to be seen bounding up and down and
over the green fields; each one and each tribe, band, and gang, taking their own way, and using their own means to the greatest advantage possible, to leave the sight and sound of the puffing of our boat; which was, for the first time, saluting the green and wild shores of the Missouri with the
din of mighty steam.
From St. Louis to the falls of the Missouri, a distance of 2600 miles, is one continued prairie;
with the exception of a few of the bottoms formed along the bank of the river, and the streams which
are falling into it, which are often covered with the most luxuriant growth of forest timber.
The summit level of the great prairies stretching off to the west and the east from the river, to an almost boundless extent, is from two to three hundred feet above the level of the river; which has formed a bed or valley for its course, varying in width from two to twenty miles. This channel or valley has been evidently produced by the force of the current, which has gradually excavated, in its floods and gorges, this immense space, and sent its débris into the ocean. By the continual overflowing of the river, its deposits have been lodged and left with a horizontal surface, spreading
the deepest and richest alluvion over the surface of its meadows on either side; through which the
river winds its serpentine course, alternately running from one bluff to the other, which present
themselves to its shores in all the most picturesque and beautiful shapes and colours
imaginablesome with their green sides gracefully slope down in the most lovely groups to the water's edge; whilst others, divested of their verdure, present themselves in immense masses of clay of different colours, which arrest the eye of the traveler, with the most curious views is the world.
These strange and picturesque appearances have been produced by the rains and frosts, which are continually changing the dimensions, and varying the thousand shapes of these denuded
hills, by washing down their sides and carrying them into the river.
Amongst these groups may be seen tens and hundreds of thousands of different forms and
figures, of the sublime and the picturesque; in many places for miles together, as the boat glides
along, there is one continued appearance, before and behind us, of some ancient and boundless
city in ruinsramparts, terraces, domes, towers, citadels and castles may be seencupolas, and magnificent porticoes, and here and there a solitary column and crumbling pedestal, and even spires of clay which stand aloneand glistening in distance, as the sun's rays are refracted back by the thousand crystals of gypsum which are imbedded in the clay of which they are formed. Over and through these groups of domes and battlements (as one is compelled to imagine them), the sun sends his long and gilding rays, at morn or in the evening; giving life and light, by aid of shadows cast, to the different glowing colours of these clay-built ruins; shedding a glory over the solitude of this wild and pictured country, which no one can realize unless he travels here and looks upon it.
It is amidst these wild and quiet haunts that the mountain-sheep, and the fleet-bounding antelope sport and live in herds, secure from their enemies, to whom the sides and slopes of these
bluffs (around which they fearlessly bound) are nearly inaccessible.
The grizzly bear also has chosen these places for his abode; he sullenly sneaks through the
gulphs and chasms, and ravines, and frowns away the lurking Indian; whilst the mountain-sheep
and antelope are bounding over and around the hill tops, safe and free from harm of man and beast.
Such is a hasty sketch of the river scenes and scenery for 2000 miles, over which we tugged, and puffed, and blowed, and toiled for three months, before we reached this place. Since we arrived here, the steamer has returned and left me here to explore the country and visit the tribes in this vicinity, and then descend the river from this place to St. Louis; which Tour, if I live through it, will furnish material for many a story and curious incident, which I may give you in detail in future
epistles, and when I have more leisure than I have at the present moment. I will then undertake to
tell how we astonished the natives, in many an instance, which I can in this Letter but just hint at
and say adieu. If anything did ever literally and completely "astonish (and astound) the natives," it
was the appearance of our steamer, puffing and blowing, and paddling and rushing by their villages
which were on the banks of the river.
These poor and ignorant people for the distance of 2000 miles, had never before seen or heard of a steam-boat, and in some places they seemed at a loss to know what to do, or how to act; they could not, as the Dutch did at Newburgh, on the Hudson River, take it to be a "floating saw-mill"and they had no name for itso it was, like every thing else (with them), which is mysterious and unaccountable, called medicine (mystery). We had on board one twelve-pound cannon and three or four eight-pound swivels, which we were taking up to arm the Fur Company's Fort at the mouth of Yellow Stone; and at the approach to every village they were all discharged several times in rapid succession, which threw the inhabitants into utter confusion and amazementsome of them laid their faces to the ground, and cried to the Great Spiritsome shot their horses and dogs, and sacrificed them to appease the Great Spirit, whom they conceived was offendedsome deserted their villages and ran to the tops of the bluffs some miles distant; and others, in some places, as the boat landed in front of their villages, came with great caution, and peeped over the bank of the river to see the fate of their chiefs, whose duty it was (from the nature of their office) to approach us, whether friends or foes, and to go on board. Sometimes, in this plight, they were instantly thrown 'neck and heels' over each other's heads and shouldersmen, women and children, and dogssage, sachem, old and youngall in a mass, at the frightful discharge of the steam from the escape-pipe, which the captain of the boat let loose upon them for his own fun and amusement.
There were many curious conjectures amongst their wise men, with regard to the nature and
powers of the steam-boat. Amongst the Mandans, some called it the "big thunder canoe;" for when
in distance below the village, they 'saw the lightning flash from its sides, and heard the thunder
come from it;' others called it the "big medicine canoe with eyes;" it was medicine (mystery) because they could not understand it; and it must have eyes, for said they, "it sees its own way, and takes the deep water in the middle of the channel."
They had no idea of the boat being steered by the man at the wheel, and well they might have been astonished at its taking the deepest water. I may (if I do not forget it) hereafter give you an account of some other curious incidents of this kind, which we met with in this voyage; for we met many, and some of them were really laughable.
The Fort in which I am residing was built by Mr. M'Kenzie, who now occupies it. It is the
largest and best-built establishment of the kind on the river, being the great or principal head-charters and depôt of the Fur Company's business in this region. A vast stock of goods is
kept on hand at this place; and at certain times of the year the numerous out-posts concentrate here with the returns of their season's trade, and refit out with a fresh supply of goods to trade with the
The site for the Fort is well selected, being a beautiful prairie on the bank near the junction of the Missouri with the Yellow Stone rivers; and its inmates and its stores well protected from Indian
Mr. M'Kenzie is a kind-hearted and high-minded Scotchman; and seems to have charge of all the Fur Companies' business in this region, and from this to the Rocky Mountains. He lives in good and comfortable style, inside of the Fort, which contains some eight or ten log-houses and stores, and has generally forty or fifty men, and one hundred and fifty horses about him.
He has, with the same spirit of liberality and politeness with which Mons. Pierre Chouteau
treated me on my passage up the river, pronounced me welcome at his table, which groans under
the luxuries of the country; with buffalo meat and tongues, with beavers' tails and marrow-fat; but
sans coffee, sans bread and butter. Good cheer and good living we get at it however, and good wine also; for a bottle of Madeira and one of excellent Port are set in a pail of ice every day, and exhausted at dinner.
At the hospitable board of this gentleman I found also another, who forms a happy companion for mine host; and whose intellectual and polished society has added not a little to my pleasure and amusement since I arrived here.
The gentleman of whom I am speaking is an Englishman, by the name of Hamilton, of the most pleasing and entertaining conversation, whose mind seems to be a complete store-house of ancient and modern literature and art; and whose free and familiar acquaintance with the manners
and men of his country gives him the stamp of a gentleman, who has had the curiosity to bring the
embellishments of the enlightened world, to contrast with the rude and the wild of these remote
We three bons vivants form the group about the dinner-table, of which I have before spoken, and crack our jokes and fun over the bottles of Port and Madeira, which I have named; and a considerable part of which, this gentleman has brought with great and precious care from his own
This post is the general rendezvous of a great number of Indian tribes in these regions, who
are continually concentrating here for the purpose of trade; sometimes coming, the whole tribe together, in a mass. There are now here, and encamped about the Fort, a great many, and I am
continually at work with my brush; we have around us at this time the Knisteneaux, Crows,
Assinneboins and Blackfeet, and in a few days are to have large accessions.
The finest specimens of Indians on the Continent are in these regions; and before I leave these parts, I shall make excursions into their respective countries, to their own native fire-sides; and
there study their looks and peculiar customs; enabling me to drop you now and then an interesting
Letter. The tribes which I shall be enabled to see and study by my visit to this region, are the Ojibbeways, the Assinneboins, Knisteneaux, Blackfeet, Crows, Shiennes, Grosventres, Mandans,
and others; of whom and their customs, their history, traditions, costumes, &c., I shall in due
season, give you further and minute accounts.