Although most of the earliest American monotypes were made in such major art centers as New York, Boston, Paris, and Florence, the medium began to spread throughout the United States as artists settled in new areas or taught in various art schools. Because the monotype process requires little training or special equipment, some artists appear to have discovered it on their own or by word of mouth.

In the 1890s many artists in Cincinnati were introduced to the process by Frank Duveneck when he returned to his hometown to teach painting. By the time of the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco in 1915, numerous California artists had learned of the technique and were experimenting with color monotypes and variations on the basic process, such as transferring images from a canvas surface. Artists as widely separated as Taos, New Mexico, and Provincetown, Massachusetts, also began to make monotypes.

-- Joann Moser


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