Romuald Kraus grew up in the province of Bukowina when it was under Austrian rule. He studied in Vienna and in several art schools in Germany before moving to America. He was employed by the first Public Works of Art Project organized in 1933, and also created many sculptures for the Works Progress Administration. He caused a national controversy two years later with his winning entry for a statue of Justice for the Federal Building in Newark. Described in the press as “horrible” and a “monstrosity,” the sculpture was eventually rejected by Newark authorities.