Born in rural Ohio, Holmes supplemented his training as a scientist with art lessons in Washington, D.C. His career began in 1872 with the government-sponsored Hayden Survey, on which he served as official geologist and artist, traveling through Wyoming and Colorado.
- Mark Leithauser received a bachelor’s degree in art and archaeology as well as an MFA in printmaking and drawing from Wayne State University in Michigan.
Leaving his native New York in 1863, Jackson made his first trip west as a driver for a wagon train.
Robert S. Duncanson was one of the few landscape painters of African American descent to achieve international recognition. His father was a Canadian of Scottish descent, and his mother was black.
Arthur Wesley Dow, born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, was initially influenced by the Barbizon-inspired work of fellow Bostonian William Morris Hunt.
Florence Koehler was an interior decorator and furniture advisor in addition to making jewelry.