Fighters for Freedom: William H. Johnson Picturing Justice

National Tour

Gibbes Museum of Art
in Charleston, South Carolina
Albany Museum of Art
in Albany, Georgia
Oklahoma City Museum of Art
in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
The Rockwell Museum
in Corning, New York
Wichita Art Museum
in Wichita, Kansas
Smithsonian American Art Museum
in Washington, DC
Patricia and Phillip Frost Art Museum
in Miami, Florida
Media - 1983.95.53 - SAAM-1983.95.53_2 - 142417

William H. Johnson, Crispus Attucks, ca. 1945, oil on paperboard, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of the Harmon Foundation, 1983.95.53

William H. Johnson (1901–1970) painted his Fighters for Freedom series in the mid-1940s as a tribute to African American activists, scientists, teachers, and performers as well as international heads of state working to bring peace to the world. He celebrated their accomplishments even as he acknowledged the realities of racism, violence, and oppression they faced and overcame. Some of his Fighters—Harriet Tubman, George Washington Carver, Marian Anderson, and Mahatma Gandhi—are familiar historical figures; others are less well-known individuals whose determination and sacrifice have been eclipsed over time. Johnson elevates their lives, offering historical insights and fresh perspectives. Through their stories he suggests that the pursuit of freedom is an ongoing, interconnected struggle, with moments of both triumph and tragedy, and he invites us to reflect on our own struggles for justice today. In Fighters for Freedom Johnson reminds us that individual achievement and commitment to social justice are at the heart of the American story.

This exhibition is drawn entirely from the collection of more than 1,000 works by William H. Johnson given to the Smithsonian American Art Museum by the Harmon Foundation in 1967. Since that time, SAAM has organized exhibitions and installations of Johnson’s work and pursued an ongoing program of conservation for these fragile paintings.

The exhibition is organized by Virginia Mecklenburg, senior curator at the Smithsonian American Art Museum.


Explore the Fighters for Freedom

Decode imagery and discover hidden stories in artist William H. Johnson's Fighters for Freedom series. Reflect on connections between the individuals portrayed, from iconic to lesser-known, and how past struggles for justice may relate to the present. 

Who Were the Fighters?

Explore the biographies of the figures William H. Johnson portrayed in eight of his Fighters for Freedom paintings, as well as the artist himself. Close-looking questions, primary source connections, and reflection prompts are included in this Sutori resource.

Learn More in Sutori

Decoding the Paintings

Uncover meaning behind the imagery embedded in William H. Johnson's Fighters for Freedom paintings through this Smithsonian Learning Lab collection. Explore Johnson's visual references and historical source material, and discover little-known figures in Black history.

Take a Closer Look in the Learning Lab


Fighters for Freedom: William H. Johnson Picturing Justice is organized by the Smithsonian American Art Museum with generous support from Art Bridges, Faye and Robert Davidson, and the Jacob and Gwendolyn Lawrence Foundation.

Color logo that says "Art Bridges"